عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Flooding resulting from hurricanes and other extreme storm events is aprominent risk along the coasts. These coastal areas are typically of low elevation and relief, making land and infrastructure highly susceptible to inundation by storm surge and waves. Theseverity of this threat is exacerbated by sea level rise and a possible increase in storm frequencyand strength due to climate change. Although hard protection structures such as levees and floodwalls reduce flood risk, these structures may fail when storm conditions exceed the designthreshold. There is a general consensus that wetlands, which often serve as transition zonesbetween open water and dry land, could act as buffers and reduce storm surge and propagatingwaves substantially before they encounter coastal development. Unfortunately, the capability of wetlands to serve as protection during extreme storms is not understood fully or welldocumented; furthermore, water level and wave height reductions by vegetation are studied onlyin low-energy environments. Nonetheless, these studies present methods to quantify vegetation-induced wave attenuation for both modeling and design. This technical note focuses on thedamping of propagating water waves by vegetation, but also discusses surge reduction briefly. Although waves may be encountered in freshwater environments (e.g., boat wakes, lake fetch, flood waves, etc.), this review focuses on coastal vegetation and resultant effects on flood and storm damage reduction.
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